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        平博体育官方网站

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        平博体育官方网站ByHanJunofDRCResearchReport,(Total4525)Thepromotionofagriculturalmodernizationalongwiththefurtherdevelopmentofindustrialization,ITapplicationandurbanizationisanunderlyingtaskrelatedwiththeestablishmentofamoderatelyprosperiththerequirementsofourtimes,wemuststrivetobreaknewpathsleadingtoanew-typeagriculturalmodernizationwithChinesecharacteristics,includingadvancedproductiontechniques,moderatemanagementscales,siveplanforthecomprehensivedevelopmentofreforminruralareasandtheaccelerationofagriculturalmodernization,andexplicitlypointedoutthedirectionandprinciplesfortheprogressofnre,eImportofFoodandImprovingFoodSecuritySystemofChinaItisaneternalsocialrulethatonlywhenclothingandf,,acountrywithalargepopulation,itisama,thecomprehensiveproductivityoffoodinChilionpeoplewithnearly9%%ceUnitindicatesthatChinarankedspositionasthe52ndintheworldrankingsandintermsofpercapitaGDP,Chinaisoneofthefewcountrieswhichsu,,theconsump%in2012,andisexpectedtoreach70%by2030,whereastheexpectedpeakvalueofurbanizationinChinawouldrangebetween70%~75%.Inthe20yearsfrom2011to2030,,theaveragefooddem,,afterfollowingthefoodconsumptionpatterninthecity,willincreasehisdailyfoodconsumptionby20%.Thehundredsofmil,thetotalacreageofarablelandkeepsdecreasing,theshortageofwaterresourcegetsaggravated,influenceoftheclimatechangebecomesintensifiedandthesustainableincreaseoffoodproductioninChinawouldbecomeincreasinglydifficult,therefore,,asadevelopingcountrywithalargepopulationandinsufficientland,willfindithardtosatisfythefoodconsumptionoftheresidentsandtheincreasingfooddemandarisingfromtheeconomicandsocialdevelopmnofover800millionmu(15mumakeonehectare)ofsownarea,ap,itinternationalanddomesticresourcesandmarketsandgivefullplaytoitsadvantagesasamajoreconomy,andefficientlymakeuseoftheglobalresourcesandinternationalmarrategyonmajoragriculturalproducts,optimizethemixofthesourceofgrainimport,andestablishstableandreliabletraderelations;speeduptheimplementationofthe“goglobal”agriculturalstrategyandfosterlargeenterpriseengagedintheproductionofgrain,cottonandoilandwithinternationalcompetitiveedge;rendersupporttoqualifiedenterprisestoconductoverseasagriculturalproductionandcooperationonimportandexportwithmutualbenefitandespeciallywithneighboringcountriessoastopreventandmitigatethertions,supplyanddemandpatternoffoodandtheinternationaltradeenvironment,weshouldkeepafirmhandontheinitiativesoffoodsecurityandimplementanationalfoodsecuritystrategybasedondomesticsupplyandmoderateimportswhichwill,,Chinasfo,therewillbeconsiderablerisksandpotentialdangerswhichwillnotonlybeunbearabletotheinternationalmarket,,itisdeterminedbythedemandofthedevelopmentofChina,riceandcornofChinaisaround60%,71%and67%,respectively,,thenumberofagriculturall,domesticfoodproductionisboundtobeaffected,,theinfluenceofChinaonglobalfoodmarketkeepsincreasingandtherequirementfromseffortinsecuringself-sufcompliancewiththesituationofChina,wemustensurethattheredlineforprotectingfarmland(arableland)isnotcrossed,delimitthescopeofpermanentbasicfarmlandandimplementthepracticeofholdingprovincialgovernorsresponsibleforthe“ricebag”(grainsupply).Weshouldfurtherclarifytheresponsibilityanddivisionofworkinfoodsecuritybetweenthecentralandlocalgovernments,keepimprovingthecomprehensiveproductivityofagriculture,enhanceChinasabilityincoordinatingandutilizingtheinternationalagriculturalresourcesandmarketandensuregeneralself-sufficiencyofgrainandsecurityoffoodtoprovideastrongsupportfortheeshold-basedManagementandDiversifiedManagementModesandFacilitatingtheEstablishmentofaNew-typeAgriculturalManagementSystemHouseholdmanagementisthemostcommonforminagriculturalmanagementacctanditrequirestimelyresponsetotheminorchangesinnaturalenvironment,whichhnformablew,householdmanagementisthemostadoptiveinagriculture,whichcannotonlybeadoptedbytraditionalagriculturewhichisbasedonmanuallabor,butalsobymodernagricult,householneseagriculture.ByLaiYouwei,LiGuangqianShiGuang,ResearchTeamon"DevelopmentCharacteristics,ProblemsandCountermeasuresofChinasE-commerceServiceIndustry",GeneralOfficeofDRCResearchReport,(Total4580)I.FastGrowingTransactionVolumeofChinasE-commerceOverrecentyears,thetransactionvolumeofChinase-commercesawcontinuousgrowth,ologyofChina,thetransactionvolumeofChinase-commercereachedapproximatelyRMB10trillionyuanin2013,up25%,thesizeofChinaanewsourceforChina,withtheincreasingacceptanceofe-commerceandonlineshoppingbycorporateusersandconsumers,traditionalcompaniesaremarchingintothee-commerceindustrywithagrowingnumberofonlinesalesactivities,,%ofChinasonlineconsumptionrepresentedaswitchfromoffline,whiletheremaining39%,ChinasonlineshoppinggeneratedanaddedconsumptionvolumeworthRMB720billionyuanin2013,aclearmanifestatio,onlineshoppersinChinacontinuetogrowrapidly,,,thatnumberhadrisento302million,%,Chinase-commerceindustryisactivelyinvolvedinpursuingtechnologicalinnovationaswellasinnovationinbusinessmodel,,smobilee-commercemarketwillexceedRMB300billionyuan,withanaverageyearlygrowthof70%.Fourth,thedevelopmentenvironmentforChina,Chinase-commercehasenjoyedabetterdevelopmentenvironmentwiththeperfectionofrelevantlawsandregulationsaswellastheimprovedinfrastructureandtechnicalstandards,andwillundoubtedlyembraceanevenbrighterfuturewiththeestablishmentofasoundstatesupervisionsystem,strongerpolicysupport,furtherimprovedinfrastructure,edividedintothreetypes,namely,transactionalservices,supportingservices,AlibabaGroup,,,,,,,,,,,logisticsanddelivery,anddataoperation,,e-commerceoperationandonlinemodeling,,e-commerceservicesareexpandingthemselves,,Chinase-commerceserviceprovidershaveenormouspotentialsintodaysinformation-based,market-oriented,highlyconnected,,,ChinahasseenfasterintegrationoftheBusinesstoBusiness(B2B)modelandtheBusinesstoCustomer(B2C)modelaswellasth(C2C)commercestilldominatestheonlineretailmarket,occupyingover70%ofmarketshares,its,Chinase-commercetransaction,,andotherlarge-scalecomprehensivee-commercecom,,,,andotherB2Ccompaniesaretransformingfromstorestoplatformsbyallowingtcentyears.(1)slargestonlineandmobilee-commercecompany,AlibabaGroupoperatese-co,AlibabaGroupprovidesthreetypesofplatformservices,namely,B2B,C2C,,anaffiliateofAlibabaGroupandoneofChinasmostpopularC2Cplatform,hadapproximately500mil,,,eretailbusinesscommunitythatcoversC2C,groupbuying,distribution,auction,,sleadingB2Conlineshoppingwebsite,,,AlibabaGroup,,,,,,China,rsforonlinemarketing,transactioncommissions,srevenueforthefiscalyear2010,2011,2012,,,,snetlossforfiscalyear2010wasRMB503millionyuanandthenetprofitforthefiscalyear2011,2012,,,(2),,communicationsproducts,consumerelectronics,,italsoprovidesaseriesofvalue-addservicesforthethird-partyvendorssuchasonlinesalesplatformsandlogistics,,,,itsplatformturnoverexceededRMB100billionyuan.(3)Thethird-partye-commerceplatformsinGuangdongProvince,ZhejiangProvince,partye-commerceplatformsinGuangdongProvince,ZhejiangProvince,FujianProvinceandotherlocalareas,,e-commerceplatformswithanannualturnoverofoverRMB10billionyuan,,mainlycomefromthesteelindustry,thepetrochemicalindustry,thegrainindustry,andtheelectronicsindustry,,anumberofprofessionale-commerceplatformsareplayingan,,,,,,hoe-makingclusterinJinjiangCityandPutianCityandtheclothingandtextileclusterinQuanzhouCity....Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.

        平博体育官方网站ChenXiwenResearchReport,,2000(Total1282)Duringthe9thFive-YearPlanperiod,anoverallbalancewasachievedbetweenthesupplyanddemandofmajoragriculturalproducts,’sagriculture,whichforlong-termtookthesupplyofsufficientfoodandclothingtothepeopleasitsfundamentaltarget,wouldnowenteran’sagriculture,andtheruralareasasawhole,,andsomehaveresultedfromthesurfacingofsomedeeplyrootedconickenthepaceofsystemandorganizationinnovationwillbethekeytosmoothadvanceofChina’sagricultureandruralworkasawholeintoanewperiodofdevelopment,andthecentraltaskinChina’dbasicappr(1).Glaringcontradictionbetandinattentiontoqualitativeoptimizationforlongyearsinthepasthasobviouslybeenrestrictedbydemand.(2).,townshipenterpriseshavegrownnoticeablywe,therurallabourforcehassufferedasetbackinitstransfertosecondaryandtertiaryindustries,andthetotalnumberofemployeesinagriculturehasbouncedback.(3).Increasingdifficultiesinthegrowthofthefarmers’,thegrowthofaverageper-capitanetincomeoffarmershassloweddownandtheruralareaasawholehassunkintoasituationofearningeverlessfromagricultureandrelyingmershasshrunkfortwoyears.(4).Aggravatingpressu,thepricesofcereals,oilsandotherstapleagricultur’sentryintotheWorldTradeOrganization,pressuresfromthisdirectionwillnoticeablyaggravate.(5).Wideningdiscrepancybetweenthe’stownsandvillagesarebasicallyorganizati,however,areoutward-orientedbusinessoperationorganizationsfromwhichtheycangetmarketinformation,technicalandfundsupport,,theestablishmentoffullgovernmentsatthetownlevelhasledtoaswellingoforganizations,staffandexpenditures,broadmassesofpeopleintheruralareas.(6).Growingdistancebetweenasupportiveandprotectiveagriculturalsystemcharacterizedmainlybypriceprot,governmentswouldshoulderheavierburdens,governmentsubsidiescouldhardlygodirectlytofarmers,,thispractimentduringthe10thFive-YearPlanperiodThebasicapproachofthoughtsaboutagriculturalandruraldevelopmentatpresentandinthenearfuturehasbeendefinedbythedecisionmadeatthe3rdPl,specialattentionshouldbepaidtothreeissues:(1).Itshouldbestressedthatthestrengtheningofagricu,thecomprehensiveproductioncapacityofChina’,inparticular,ingrainproductionforfiveyears,,itwouldbeeasyforblindoptimismtodevelop,Five-YearPlanperiodhasitsinevitability,butitisalsoattributabletosomespecialfactors,suchassubstantialincreaseofthepricesofgovernmentpurchases,unlimitedpurchaseofgrainatprotectiveprices,,however,thegrowthofthepopulation,decreaseofcultivatedland,shortageofwater,,themarketsan,specialattentionshouldbepaidtostrengtheningthebasicpositionofagriculture,protectingandincreasinggrainproductioncapacityduringthe10thFive-YearPlanperiod,periodshouldbeconcentratedmoreonimprovementoftheproduction,livingandmarketconditionsofagricultureandtheruralareasasawhole,promotionofagriculturalscienceandtechnologyandpopularizationofadvancedandapplicabletechnology,establishmentofasystemforcollectionanddisseminationofinformationaboutthemarketsofagriculturalproductsandasystemofqualitystandardsforagriculturalproducts,anddevelopm,thefocusshouldbeputonimprovementofthecomprehensivequalityofagriculture,thequalityofagriculturalproductsandefficiencyofagriculture,andtheincomeoffarmers.…Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.,2015AsChina’seconomyentersthenewnormal,itstransformationandupgradinghavebecomethekeytoChina’icalrevol,informationtecementthestrategyofpr’sEconomicTra,,representedbytheInternetofthings,cloudcomputing,mobileinternetandbigdata,thisnewgenerationofinformationtechnologydevelopsrapidly,,transmission,,widerandde“neweconomy”.ITindustryhasbecomeoneofthelargestindustrialsectors,inwhichmanyhugeenterpriseshavecomeintobeingbothathomeandabroad,suchasMicrosoft,Apple,Intel,Alibaba,Tencent,,thetransformationandupgradingoftr,theprimary,thesecondaryandthetertiary,arepenetratedbyITapplicationstodifferentdegrees,mmerceandtrade,,networking,mo’,governmentsofallcountriestaketheinitiativ,usuallyopposedtomakingindustrialpolicies,madethe“RevivingAmericanManufacturing”strategy,inwhichtheintegrationofthenewgenerat,theGermangovernmentissuedHigh-TechStrategy2020forGermany,puttingforwardtheinitiativeof“”.In2013,itsworkinggrouppublishedSecuringtheFutureofGermanManufacturingIndustry:,inwhich“”featuringtheintegrationofindustriesandITiscalledthefourthindustrialrevolution,aftermechanization,,atthe16thPartyCongressoftheCommunistPartyofChina,theCentralCommitteepu,“promotingindustrializationbyinformatization,andinturn,acceleratinginformatizationbyindustrialization”.The17thPartyCongressputforwardtheideaof“integratinginformatizationwithindustrialization”.The18thPartyCongres“InternetPlus”and“MadeinChina2025”.Formajorcountriesintheworld,ithasbecomedecisivewhetherornottheycantakeITopportunitiestoadvanceeconomictran’seconomyentersthenewnormal,Chinaisfacingatoughtaskofsteppingacrossthe“middle-incometrap”.Therefore,ifChinacanmakegooduseoftheopportunitiesofIT-driveneconomictransformation,itwillbeofgreatstrategicsignificanceforChinanotonlytoprovideanewdrivingforcefortheeconomicdevelopment,butalsotoenableChinatosurpassth’sIT-DrivenEconomicTransformationandUpgradingToachieveIT-driveneconomictransformationbymakinguseoftheopportunities,,ars,Chinahasbecometheworld’slargestexporterofITproductsandthesecondlargestproducerofITproducts,,nomattertheyarehardwareorsoftwareproviders,mostofthemhaveinvestment,’,producingmanyinfluentialITproductsmakersintheworldsuchasHuawei,ZTE,sinessscalesuchasBaidu,,Huawei,ZTEandTencentallrankedamongtheworld’stop25companieshavingthemostpatentapplicationsin2014,whichbestdemonstratestheabilityofRDandinnovationofChina’(Tianhe)computerwiththeworld’sfastestcomputing,butalsohasgrowinginfluenceinsettingth,representedbyTD―SCDMA,AVS,WAPI,,,,Chinahas649millioninternetusers,%ofthewholepopulation,,557millioninternetuserssurftheinternetviasmartphones,,Tandbusinessmodels,providingconditionsforcultivatingalargenumberofinternationallycompetitiveenterprisesforthe“neweconomy”.Inspiteofthis,whatismoreworthyofattentionisthatastheworld’slargestdevelopingeconomy,thereisagreatgapbetweenmanyofChina’straditionalindustriesandthoseofthedevelopedeconomies,,fromagriculturetomining,frommanufacturingtoservice,informationtechnologyisbeingapplied,tovariousdegrees,,traditionalindustriestaketheinitiativetoapplyinformationtechnology;whileinothercases,“neweconomy”e,theyaregenerallyi,thisprocesswillaccelerateandenjoyagreatpotential.

        ByLongGuoqiang,ResearchTeamon"ChinasComparativeAdvantageChangesandTheirImplications"ofDRCResearchReportNo88,2013(Total4337)roduceaproductwithloweropportunitycostthananotherproductandthuscanfocusonproductsandexportproductswithevenlowrativeadvantage,,acountry,whenweobservechangesintradestructuresofvariouscountries,,theJapaneseacademiccircleputforwardthetheoryofdynamiccomparativecostinthe1950s,dvantagesareresthesupply-demandrelationshipofproductionfactors,governmentalpolicies,andintrseconomicdevelopmentasadynamicprocess,wherealleconomicfactorsincludingproductionfactorendowmentwouldchangeandtherebyrenewacountrys,whenacountryparticipatesintheinternationaldivisionoflaborinlightofitsexistingcomparativeadvantages,itneedstosupportandpromotedomestickeyindustrieswithnationalresourcesandtostrengthenitsinternati“FourAsianTigers”havemadehugesuccessbecausetheirgovernmentspurposefullyguidedtheupgradingofindustrialstructureandexportloballargestexporterbyseizingthehistoricalopportunityofthecross-bordertransferoess,asitmainlyexportsfin,andinrecentyearssomeproductswithhighertechnologicalcontenthavegraduallygainedinternationalcompetitiveness,suchasmoyanddemand,butwithemergingstructuralcontr,somenewadvantagesareappearing,evidencedbyfastexpansion,domesticmarketwithquickupgradingofdemandstructure,abundantcapital,humanresourceswithsubstantiallyimprovededucationattainment,completeindustrialsupportcapacities,constantlybetteredcapacityfortechnologicalinnovation,perfectinfrastructureandincreasinglystrengthenedcapacityforoverseasinvestment,,ChinaneedstoshiftitsexportstrategybasedonstatscomparativeadvantagesChina,exportedprimaryproductsaccountedfor51%ofthetotalexportvolume,butithasbeenreducedtoonly5%now,withtheother95%,despitetheover60%shareformachineryandelectricproductsandtheover30%,analysesfromtheperspectiveofthevaluechainofglobaldivisionoflaborevidentlyshowthatmostofsuchproducts,inrecenttenyears,thetec,Chinascomparativeadvantagesoflabor-intensiveproductsshouldbeattributedtothegovernmentsexport-orientedstrategyInfaceofthestrategicopportunitybroughtaboutbythecross-bordertransferofexport-orientedlabor-intensiveindustriesinEastAsia,theChinesegovernmenthasformulatedstrategiestoparticipateininternat,Chinahasformedthestrongexportcompetitivenessoflabor-intensiveindustriesbycombiningitsadvantageoflow-costlaborwithadvancedtechnology,management,brandandinternatioscomparativeadvantagesofexportarestillconcentratedonthelabor-intensivelinkwithlowaddedvaluesofar,despitethegovernmentscomparativeadvantagesareundergoingsignificantchangesThispaperanalyzesthechangingprocessandtheprospectoffactorsinfluencingChina,whichanalyzesthechangingpresto,whichanalyzesthechangingtendencyoffactorsinfluencingChinascom,China,thecostofortandmaintaintheinternationalcompe,theshareofsometraditionallabor-intensiveproductshasbecomesmallerintheinternationalmarket.亚博体育PTSKY招财蟾蜍游戏ByHeJianwu,DepartmentofDevelopmentStrategyandRegionalEconomyofDRCResearchReportNo115,2014(Total4614)In2010,thescaleofChinaseconomyexceededthatofJapan,becomingthesecondlargesteconomyintheworldandthelargestinAsia,andoneofthemedium-andh,itsdevelopmentisreflectednotonlyintheimprovementofitsownlevel,butalsointhefactthatithasalsobecomeanimportantsincreasingroleandinfluenceinglobaleconomy,thecorrectunderstandingandpublicizingofthepositiveroleofChinasdevelopmentintheglobaleconomyisnotonlyconducivetoimprovingthepositiveimageofChinaintheinternationalcommunity,butalsohasgreaitiveinfluenceofChinasEconomicGrowthSpeedsuptheChangeofthe"South-North"DevelopmentP,itisfoundthatthegloba,theproportionofGDPofdevelopedcountriestothatofdevelopingcountriesintheglobaleconomyremainedbasicallystable,withtheGDPo,theproportionofGDPofdevelopedcountriesintheglobaleconomyroseremarkablyfromlessthan80%tonearly85%.Inthiscentury,boostedbydevelopingcountries,especiallyChinasrapidgrowth,thesituationhasbeenreversed,withtheproportionofdevelopingcountriesbeginningtosoarfromabout18%%in2012,%%seconomyontheglobaleconomyisreflectednotonlyinthechangeoftheSouth-Northdevelopmentpattern,(2011),withthecontinuedriseofChinaseconomyandthedevelopmentofotherregionsinEastAsia,theglobaleconomiccenterofgravityisshiftingtotheeastatanacceleratedspeed,movingfromthemiddleofthesEconomicGrowthNotOnlyProvidesAHugeMarkettotheGlobalEconomy,ButAlsoSpeedsUpT,Chinasecseconomicdevelopmenthasprovidedhu,itsreflectedinthefollowingaspects:,fastindustrializationhassuccessfullyboostedChinasrapideconomicgrowth,,thedemandsforenergy,rawmaterialsandelectromechanicalequipmentgrowrapidly,greatlystimulatingtheexportgrowthofenergy,rawmaterialsandmachineryequipment,,China,andtheimportdemandsforhigh-techproduct,withChinaseconomicgrowth,themiddle-levelincomepopulationhasbeearketofiPhoneintheworld,with38%,sdevelopmenthaspromosopeningtotheoutsideworldhasnotonlyimproveditsownspecializationlevel,butalsopromotedtheimprovementofitstradepartnersspecializationlevel,andpropelledthedeepeningofthegloballabordivisionsyst,overthepast20yearsandmore,theverticalspecializationindexesofmajorAsianeconomieshaveallgoneup,indicatingthattheirspecializationlevelisimprovingandtheirlabordivisionsbeingdeepened(WTO,2011).Amongthem,Chinawitnessedthebiggestincrease,withitsverticalspecializationindexrisingfromabout8%in1985to37%in20081,,Chinasdevelopmenthasalsopro%,smore,,Chinahadbecomethefifthlargestbuyerofsstabledevelopmentisconduc,China,overthepast30yearsandmore,theannualaveragepricehikeofChina%%.Besides,overthepast30yearsandmore,Chinaseconomyhasmaintainedastableandrapidgrowth,playingtheroleof"stabilizer",toacertainextent,insuppressingthe,overthepast30yearsandmore,thefluctuationdegreeofChinaseconomyisgreatlylowerthanthatofmajordevelopedcountries,andisonlyhigherthanVietnaminallth,aftertheoutbreakofthefinancialcrisis,thecourseofrecoveryofglobaleconosEconomicGrowthtoGlobalEconomicGrowthInordertoworkoutthecontributionofChinaseconomicgrowthtoglobaleconomicgrowthinanall-roundway,,fromthehistoricalandglobalperspective,historicaldataisusedtoestimatethehistoricalcontributionofChinaseconomicgrowthtoglobalGDPincrement;ontheotherhand,basedonthecurrentfacts,transnationaldataandtheinternationalinput-outputmodelareusedtoanalyzetheboostingeffectofChineseeconomyontheeconomyofdifferentcountries.

        GeYanfengImprovingthesocialsecuritysystemisofdecisivesignificancetorestructuringthenationaleconomyandthesmoothprogressofthereformofthestate-ownedenterprises(SOE).However,theestablishmentofanewsocialsecuritysystemwhichstartedin1995progressedquiteslowly,tsthemajorobstacletotheestablishmentofthenewsystemInthepast,theChinesegovernmentprovidedsocialsecurityonthecashbasisthroughtheenterprisesandpubl,SOEsdeductedinadva,thesurpluseswerepaidtothestatefinanceandthestateinvestedwiththesurplusesintheexpectationthattheinvestmentyieldscouldpayfortheemployees’,the3rdPlenarySessionofthe14thNationalCongressofthepartydecidedtoreplacetheoldpensioninsurancesystemwithaf,togetherwiththesumpaidtothefundbytheirenterprises,willgototheirpersoohavejuststartedtoworkastheywillconti,theoldemployeesdidnotdirectlygatherfundtopayfortheirpension,healthcareandhouse,insteadofthat,theirsecurityfundwasdeductedinadvance,oldemployeeshavelittlefundintheirpers,intheprocessofreplacingthecashbasissystemwiththefundaccumulationsystem,thegovernmentshouldtransfersomesocialsecurityfundintothepersona,theywillbeunabletobilltheirsocialsecurityexpenses,suchaspension,,,thegovernmenthasbeentryingtomakeupforitshiddenarrearstotheemploy,therati,whilepayingforthepersonalaccountsoftheon-the-jobemployees,yees,,enterpriseswillhavetodivertfundfromthepersonalaccountsofthenextgenerationofemployees,,thecurrentoperationofsuchas,theblankaccountoperationcanbarelyhonfundin1998,thenationalrevenueforpension(includingtheunifiedfundcollectionandthefundinthepersonalaccount)stillfellshortofthepensionpacollectionofpensionfundbyvariousmeans,,,enterprises,theSOEsinparticular,areunabletorelievetheirburdenastheirpaymenttopensioninsurance(includingunifiedpaymentandpaymenttoemployees’personalaccounts),thedifficultyincollectingpensioninsuranceandtheissuingofpensionhascreatedinabilitytoguaranteetheold-agesecurityoftheemployees,,ievetheshifttowardthefundaccumulationsystemTheprevailingideatocopewiththeexistingsituationinvolvestheincreas:(1).Intensifypensionfeecollectionbyreplacingthefeewithtaxorentrustingtaxdepartmentstocollectit.(2).Expandthecoverageofthepensioninsurancesyst,butwil,veconsequences,suchasbiggerenterpriselosses,restrainingenterprisedevelopmentandmoredifficultiestogovernmenttaxcollection.…Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.平博体育官方网站

        平博体育官方网站ByXuHongqiang,,2015ShenzhenandHo,tioninscienceandtechnology,theconstructionofShenzhen/HongKongInnovationCircleandtheworld-classtechnologyinnovationcenterwillprovidenewandsustainableincentivestotheeconomicdevelopmentinthetwocitiesaswellasintheregion,upliftingChina’/HongKongInnovationCircleDrivenbytheneedforinnovationandaimingatdevelopingtheworld-classtechnologyinnovationcenter,Shenzhen/HongKongInnovationCircleispromotedbythegove,,highlyaggregatedregionalinnovationsystemandindustrialagglomerationwhichwilllead,,itmeansthatthroughcoordinatingthemanagementofinnovationresources,ShenzhenandHongKongwillimplementfavorablepoliciesfortechnologicalpersonneltofacilitatetheircross-borderwork,lifeandactivitiesinanattempttoshareinnovationresourcesinresearchworkforce,funds,preferentialtaxpolicies,markets,technologyinnovation,pushforwardtheupgradingofindustrialandeconomicstructureofShenzhen,HongKongandthePearlRiverDelta,/HongKongInnovationCircleBasedonthefollowingthreereasons,itisofgreatstrategicsignificancetobuildShenzhen/,facingeconomicrestructuring,,domesticeconomyisinadesperatenee,’seconomicstructureandincreasetheindustrialcompetitivenessofthePearlRiverDeltaAfter30yearsofdevelopment,Shenzhenhasmadegreatachievementsineconomicconstruction,rankingthe4thineconomicscaleamonglargeandmedium-sizedcitiesinmainlandChina,onlynexttoShanghai,Beijing,,intheprocessofrapideconomicdevelopment,Shenzhenisalsofacndenvironmentalcapacity,relativelylagging-behindsocialcon,ShenzheninitiatedthestrategicconceptionofconstructingtheBayAreaeconomywithafocusoncreatingBayAreaindustrialclustersofTaiShanBay,ShenzhenBay,DapengBayandDayaBay,aneffortofwhichresultsinthegradualformationofaregionalinnovationsystemmainlybasedonGuangzhou,/HongKongInnovationCircleandmakingthescientificandindustrialadvantagesofthetwocitiescomplementarytoeachotherwillpromotethetransformationofShenzhen’seconomicstructurea,pushforwardtheconstructionofregionalinnovationsystem,andrea’sadvantagesintechnologicalresources,andbringinnewdrivingforcesforecono/HongKongInnovationCirclewillhelpmakefulluseofsuchadvantages,turnthemintoindustryandbusinessopportunities,(GII)jointlyissuedbyCornellUniversityintheUnitedStates,theEuropeanInstituteofBusinessAdministration(INSEAD)andtheWorldIntellectualPropertyOrganization(WIPO)showsthatHongKonghasalwaysbeenamongthetopregions,,duringtherecentfouryears,HongKonghasexperiencedadecliningtrendonthelist,indicatingthatHongKong

        LongGuoqiang,YingLowreySinceOctober1997,,nevertheless,a,’,def,therewasagoodunderstandingoftheseriousconsequenceofdeflationbythemonetaryauthori,governmentsandeconomiccirclesofWesterncountrieshaveonceaga’sdeflation,however,,deflationappearswhenpriceindexesdropuniversallyandcontinuou,thedropinproductioncostsofmostcommoditiesduetomajorscientifican,however,itisverydiffic,ultsindeflationtothreesources:(1)insufficiencyofmonetarysupplyrelativetotheamountofcommoditiesandservices;(2)insufficiencyofconsumptionandinvestmentdemandduetoprevailingloweconomicconfidence;and(3)inappropriatetighteconomicpolicies,suchasincreasingtaxratesorinterestrates,,however,in,itisnecessarytoanalyzeitsrealcausesbyexaminingChina’’,it,theincreasedamountofmonetarysupplygoestothreeparts:thefirstpartistosatisfythedemandofeconomicgrowth,thesecondpartisabsorbedbymonetizationintheeconomy,meetingthedemandofeconomicgrowthandmonetization,,,anempiricalstudyshowstheposieyincirculation(M2),termedasPureMonetaryGrowthIndex(PMGI),GI,,(RPI),,thegrowthofmonetarysupply(M2)keptslowingdownsubstantially,,,,however,,the’irrationalbehaviorAsacountryatthestageofrapiddevelopmentofindustrialization,%intheSixthFive-yearPlanto40%intheEighthFive-yearPlan,,China’seconomywasturnedintoademanddominatedonearound1997fromprevious“economyofshortage”.Accordingtothegeneralsurveyof1995conductedbytheStateStatisticsBureau,,thesituationofovercapacitybecamemoresevere,,althoughChinaneedtoimportalargeamountofcolorTVtubesbiggerthan29inches,ithasthecapacityofproducing30millionordinaryTVtubes,,marketcompetitionwilldriveenterpriseswithloweffi,however,theuniqueirrationalbehaviorsoftheChineseenterpriseshavede(SOEs)andlotsoftownshipandvillageenterprises(TVEs)areambigusarehigherthantheirvariablecosts,orevenonlyabovetheirng,governmentsatalllevels,andlocalgovernmentsinparticular,,theexistenceoftheseeconomicallyirrationalenterpriseshasdeprivedmarketcompetitionofitsfunctioninselectingplayerswithhigherefficiency,becauseenterpriseswithlowerefficiencywouldnotquitthemarketautomaticallywhenthepricesoftheirpro:firstly,thepricewillfallmorethaninanormalmarketeconomy;secondly,thetimeofthepricedeclinewilllastlonger;andthirdly,enterpriseswithhigherefficiencywouldso,cuttheirRDactivities,andseethebluntingoftheirlong-termcompetitiveedge....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.GuoLihongEconomicrestructuringtakesplaceconstantly,independentofpeople’sawareness,ngthemselvesinarelativewaywhencomparedwithothercountries,andthemostevirestructuring,anditcanachieveeitherafavorableoranunfavorableresult,,namely,thelarge-scaletransnationalflowofproductionfactors,large-scaletransnationalinvestmentofindustrialcapital,,anditincludesboththeemergenceofsunriseindustriesandenterprises,andthageisinnatureaprocessofstrengtheningtheeconomybothquantitativelyandqualitatively,,EuropeisonaparwiththeUS,,therearerelativelybigdifferencesamongEurope,,,,spontaneousevolutionprocess,nomenaandmarketdevelopment,,itisanorganiccombinationofaseriesofsocialandmarketfactors(education,culture,capital,technology,humantalents,industrialorganizationsandbusinessenvironment),butit’,thegovernmentsofvariouscountriesarelearningfromtheUSexperienceandhavestrengthenedsystembuildup,encoura,governmentalcapitalhas,theFrenchJospinGovernmentcreatedaventureinvestmentfundbytransferringreturingofemergingindustrializedcountriesandregions(representedbytheFourLittleAsianDragons).rrecttheirmistakes,andit’g-timeaccumulationofindustrialandcommercialcapitalofac,anyfailureinfence-mendingwillmakeitimposs,thecommonfocusofthestructuraladjustmentoftheFourLittleDragons(andinaweakersenseotherASEANcountries),itisashort-termmeasuretakenforthesakeofeconomicsecurity,whichisaime,Malaysiare-openeditsforeigncurrencyexchangemarket,andHongKonghandedbacktoinvestorsthe“officialstocks”,fence-mending,SouthKoreaincludedsomespecialmeasuresrelatedtoenterpriserestructuringinitsstructuraladjustmentprograms,suchasencouragingthedevelopmentofsmalla:(1)topromotethebirthandgrowthofhi-techenterprisesthroughintegratedpolicies;(2)toopenwidertothe,SouthKoreaiswillingtotakepoliticalrisks(duetodifferentsocialandculturalbackground)."shocktherapy"havecometorealizethatanyeconomicrestructuringrandomlydrivenbythemarketforceintheabsenceofbasiclawsandeffectivemechanismsonlyresultedin"shocks"withoutany"therapies".Thisisthe“post-Washingtonconsensus”.FormostformerSovietrepublicsandeasternEuropeancountriesintransformation,itseemsnottobetherighttimenowtotalkaboutanyactive,...Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.平博体育官方网站

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        ByLongGuoqiang,ResearchDepartmentofForeignEconomicRelationsofDRCResearchReportNo6,2013(Total4255)Theworldeconomyhaswitnessedswiftreform,theworldeconomygrowthpatternexperiencesmajorchanges,asreflectedinresurrectionoftradeprotec,itsinternationaleconomicandtradeenvironmenthadundergonemajorchanges,whichshowsomenewsignsinrecentyears:thedevelopedcountriesimplementthe"reindustrialization"strategy;theUStransfersitsstrategicfocuseastwardandpromotesthehigh-standardTPP;,the18thNationalCongressoftheCPCpointedoutthatChinaisstillinaperiodofstrategicopportunities,andsomemajodevelopitselfinisolationfromtherestoftheworld,therefore,judgmentoftheinternationalenvironmenthasadirectbearingonacountry,MaoZedongheldthatitwouldbenandinaccordancewiththeprincipleof"withmountainasthebacksupport,spreadingaround,andgoodcover-up",alotofin"ThirdFrontConstruction",thesecondgenerationofleadershipoftheCPCwithDengXiaopingatthecore,basedonanall-roundanalysisofthetheninternationalenvironment,heldthatpeaceanddevelopmentwerethemainstreamoftheworld,,theunderstandingoftheinternationalenvironment,differentasitmightbeinconcretesituations,wouldexertahugeimpactuponacountry,EastAsiahasseenlarge-scalerelocationofthelabor-intensiveandexport-orientedindustries,whichbrought"fourAsiantigers"successfullypursuedthedevelopments,theseeconomiesrelocatedtheirlabor-intensiveexportindustriesodeveloptheexport-orientedprocessingindustryan,Chinahasbecomeoneofthemostsuccessfulecon,withlowpercapitapossessionofresources,however,forquitealongperiodoftimeafterthefoundingnewChina,itoverlyreliedonexportofprimaryproductsforforeignexchangeearning,,Chinahasrisentobethelargestexporterintheworld,registeringgreatchangesintheexportmix–theexportoffinishedproductsreachingupto95%ofthetotal,electromechanicalproductsover60%andhi-techproductsmorethan30%.Inaddition,ChinahasovertakenUStobethelargestmanufacturerintheworld,knownasthe"WorldsFactory".AllthetremendouschangesareattributabletothefactthatChinahasgraspedtheoplyinjectsvitalitytotheworldmarket,butalsoprovidesimportantforeignmarketsconducivetothedevelopmentofChinasexport-orientedindustriesandthusdrivesrapidgrowthofChina,thedividendsresultingfromthereformintheUSandWesterncountriesamidstagflation,thepeacedividendscomingalongwiththeendoftheColdWar,thetechnologydividendsinducedbytheITandInternetrevolutionandtheinstitutionaldividendsofeconomicglobalizationbroughtaboutbythefoundingtheWTO,plusmanyotherfactors,haveledtoprosperityofUSamongothersexport-orientedindustriesandpresentedsignificantopportunitiesftionalfinancialcrisisfusedbytheUSsubprimecrisisin2007totallychangedChinaficit;Europeisboggeddowninsovereigntydebtcrisis;Japanseconomysuffersfrominsufficientdomesticdemandanddecliningcompetitivenesscausedbypopulationageing,largedeficits,,therapidlyrisinglaborcostinChinaiserod,Chinaisinfaceofchallengesofinsufficientdemandoftheinternationalmarket,butstill,,Chinafacessignificantopport,theResearchDepartmentofForeignEconomicRelationstheDevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncilscomparativeadvantagesareundergoingprofoundchanges–itsnewlyacquiredadvantagesintermsofthelocalmarket,infrastructure,supportingindustries,andhumanresourcesratherthanlowlaborcosthavecometoattractmultinationals,inthenextdecadeChinawillbetheonlycountryworldwidethatb,themultinati,,tofurtheropenupthemarketandusehumanresourcesinChinahasbecomeamoreimportant,Chinamaintainsprosperity,exertingunpreceden,31%ofbusinessreStobethefirsttheinternationalfinancialcrisis,Chinaattractedincreasingforeigndirectinvestmenttosuchanextentthatinthefirsthalfof2012Chinaovertoo,majorchangeshavetakenplacetotheforeigninvestmentstructure,asisshowninthephenomenathatmoreforeigndirectinvestmentgoestothemanufacturingindustrywithfairlyadvancedtechnologyaswellasmodernserviceindustryofhigheraddedvalue,andsomemultinationalshavemade:nearly50,000overseasChinesestudentsreturnedin2008,representingaonefoldincreasethanin2004,ormorethan1/6ofallthereturnedoverowardChinaisundoubtedlyconducivetotheupgradingChinasindustrialstructureandtheenhancementofthei,Chinahastheopportunitytoint,quitemanyWesternenterprisesfellintothequagmireofcapitalshortage,whichaffordedalotmoreopportunitiesf,Geelyhasrealizedthetransformationfromanuglyducklingtoawhiteswan;afteracquiringPutzmeister,Sanyhasgrowntobetheworld,throughmergerandacquisitionabroad,cantaketheinitiativetointegrateoverseasresourcesandmarkets,andobtainresources,technologies,researchanddevelopmentcompetence,internationalbrandsandworldmarketchannelsatalowcost,greatlyenhancingChinascapabilityofinnovationandinternationalcompetitiveness....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,:AResearchReportonHigh-LevelProfessionalsFlowTrendinRelevantCountriesandRegionsAgainsttheBackdropofInternationalFinancialCrisis.平博体育官方网站Figure1TypesofEconomicGrowthTrajectoryTheaboveclassificationmainlyfocusesontheeconomictake-offandthegrowthrate,,itisbelievedthatoncetakingoff,holeprocessofin,101economiesaroundtheworldhavesteppedintothegroupofmiddleincomecountries;andby2008,only13ofthemdevelopedtobehigh-incomecountries,completedtheirepicmissionofcatchingupandsucceededinnaturallandingathighincomelevels(theireconomicgrowthpatternisshownintherightpartofthesolidblacklineinFigure1).ThesesuccessfuleconomiesincludeJapan,SouthKorea,TaiwanofChina,HongKongSAR,PuertoRico,Mauritius,,witnessedeconomicstagnationorevenrecessionduetovariousreasonsduringcatchingup,andfellintothe"middleincometrap2"(theirgrowthpatternisshownbytheredlineinFigure1).Examplesincl-upprocesstherearetwodifferentscenarios:oneisanaturallanding,featuredwithsuccessfulindustrialization,slowdownoftheeconomicgrowthafterthecompletionofthecatching-upmissionandtheproduction(orgrowth)peaksofrepresentativeindustrialproductssuchasinfrastructure,housing,,,Germany,JapanandSouthKorea,whichcaughtupsuccessfullyaftertheWorldWarII,,whichmeansthemissionofcatchingupfailswhenthecatchingupprocessisinterruptedduetoproblemsintheeconomicsystem,developmentstrategy,andsocialdifferentiation,orforotherreasons,,000–6,,theeconomicgrowthslowsdownsharply–mostlybymorethan50%4–,,especiallysince2011,theChineseeconomyhastakenonsomenewcharacteristics,makingpeopleshowmoreandmoreconcernaboutthefactthatwhatalandingwillChinahaveinitseconomiccatchingupprocessandwillitbeanaturallandingorafallintothemiddleincometrap...Ifyouneedthefullcontext,"middleincometrap".Itroughlydescribessuchaphenomenon:whenacountrygetsridoftheMalthusianCycle,itseconomy,featuredwithindustrialization,willseethestartofeconomicgrowthinamodernsense;itsper-capitaaverageincomewillimprovesignificantlyinaperiodoftime,,itseconomystagnatesorrecedesforalongperiodandfailtogrowintoahig,Germany%;in1969whenitsper-capitaGDPreached10,440internationaldollars,,%.InJapan,%;andafteritsper-capitaGDPreached11,434internationaldollarsin1973,itseconomicgrowthdecelerated,and;from1973to1983,%.InSouthKorea,%;in1995whenitsper-capitaGDPreached11,850internationaldollars,itseconomicgrowthalsosloweddownevidently,%,from1981to2000,Brazil,ArgentinaandMexicoseconomyslippedintoprotractedstagnation,%,50%%respectivelyincomparisonwiththeaveragesduringtheirrapidgrowthperiod(1950-1980).Again,from1950to1975,theaverageannualGDPgrowthrateofformerSovietUnion,Hungary,%,%,%%respectivelywhileduringtheperiodfrom1976to2000,%(forformerSovietUnion,thefigurewastheaggregatesofallmembercountriesafteritsdisintegration),%,-%%respectively.

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